Basically biflagellate (the number of flagella varies from 0 to 16, sometimes undulipodia and centrioles secondarily lost), predominantly autotrophic organisms, the plastids of which are the result of the primary endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. A root system in flagellate forms as cruciform lying microtubular roots. Undulipodia either smooth or scaly. The chloroplasts envelopes 2-membrane, photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls a and b, or in red algae, instead of chlorophyll b, phycoerythrins/phycocyanins. Glaucophytes acquired cyanelles primarily or secondarily, but in the last case the primary endosymbiont has a cyanobacterial nature too. Mitochondrial cristae are predominantly flat, although some rhodophytes have vesicular cristae. Among the archeplastids, all types of plant organization are observed, including the “crown” one, vascular plants.


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• DIAPHORETICKES [Adl et al., 2012]
•• Archeplastida [Adl et al., 2005]
••• Glaucophyta [Skuja, 1954 in higher rank in Adl et al., 2005]
•••• Glaucocystophyta [Kies, Kremer 1986]
••• Rhodophyta [Wettstein, 1922]
•••• Rhodelphidiophyta [Gavryluk et al., 2019]
•••• Cyanidiophyta [Merola et al., 1981]
•••• Proteorhodophyta [Munoz-Gomez et al., 2017] ined.
•••• Eurhodophyta [Saunders, Hommersand, 2004] ined.
••• Chloroplastida [Adl et al., 2005]
•••• Prasinodermophyta [Li et al., 2020]
••••• Prasinodermophyceae [Li et al., 2020]
••••• Palmophyllophyceae [Leliaert et al., 2016]
•••• Chlorophyta [Pascher, 1914]
•••••• Chlorodendrophyceae [Fritsch, 1917]
•••••• Pedinophyceae [Moestrup, 1991]
•••••• Chloropicophyceae [Lopes dos Santos et al., 2017]
••••• Picocystophyceae [Lopes dos Santos et al., 2017]
•••••• Pyramimonadophyceae [Chadefaud, 1950] ined.
•••••• Mamiellophyceae [Marin, Melkonian, 2010]
•••••• Nephroselmidophyceae [Cavalier-Smith, 1993]
•••••• Pycnococcophyceae [Guillard et al., 1991] ined.
•••• Streptophyta [Bremer, 1985]
••••• Chlorokybophytina [Lewis, McCourt 2004] ined.
••••• Mesostigmatophytina [Marin, Melkonian 1999] ined.
••••• Klebsormidiophytina [van den Hoek et al., 1995] ined.
••••• Zygnematophytina [van den Hoek et al., 1995]
••••• Coleochaetophytina [Jeffrey, 1982] ined.
••••• Charophytina [Smith, 1938] ined.
••••• Embryophytina [Engler, 1886] ined.

Rank correlation:
• ~Subdomain;
•• ~ Kingdom;
••• ~ Superphylum;
••••~ Phylum;
••••• ~ Subphylum;
•••••• ~ Class