1. Giardia lamblia
is a causal agent of giardiasis. This is a parasitic disease
caused by Giardia duodenalis
(also known as G. lamblia
and G. intestinalis
). Infected individuals who experience symptoms (about 10% have no symptoms) may have diarrhea
, abdominal pain
, and weight loss
. Less common symptoms include vomiting and blood in the stool
. Symptoms usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and, without treatment, may last two to six weeks or longer.
Giardiasis usually spreads when Giardia duodenalis cysts within feces
contaminate food or water that is later consumed orally. The disease can also spread between people and through other animals. Cysts may survive for nearly three months in cold water. Giardiasis is diagnosed via stool tests.
Prevention may be improved through proper hygiene
practices. Asymptomatic cases often do not need treatment. When symptoms are present, treatment is typically provided with either tinidazole
. Infection may cause a person to become lactose intolerant
, so it is recommended to temporarily avoid lactose following an infection. Resistance
to treatment may occur in some patients.