1. Giardia lamblia is a causal agent of giardiasis. This is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia duodenalis (also known as G. lamblia and G. intestinalis). Infected individuals who experience symptoms (about 10% have no symptoms) may have diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Less common symptoms include vomiting and blood in the stool. Symptoms usually begin 1 to 3 weeks after exposure and, without treatment, may last two to six weeks or longer.
Giardiasis usually spreads when Giardia duodenalis cysts within feces contaminate food or water that is later consumed orally. The disease can also spread between people and through other animals. Cysts may survive for nearly three months in cold water. Giardiasis is diagnosed via stool tests.
Prevention may be improved through proper hygiene practices. Asymptomatic cases often do not need treatment. When symptoms are present, treatment is typically provided with either tinidazole or metronidazole. Infection may cause a person to become lactose intolerant, so it is recommended to temporarily avoid lactose following an infection. Resistance to treatment may occur in some patients.
2. Trichomonas vaginalis is a causal agent of trichomoniasis. This is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Trich is contagious, which means it might unknowingly infect others through sexual contact.
One reason trichomoniasis spreads so easily is that a large number of infected people — up to 70% — never have symptoms. When symptoms occur, they tend to appear within five to 28 days after exposure: thin (or sometimes foamy) white, yellow or greenish vaginal discharge that has a bad odor. White discharge from the penis.
Physical exam: For women, this exam includes a pelvic exam. Lab test: The vaginal swab collected may be sent to the lab for further testing if trichomonads are not seen under the microscope.
Without treatment, trichomoniasis can last for months or even years. It doesn’t go away on its own. Oral anti-infective medications kill trich. Healthcare provider may prescribe metronidazole (Flagyl®) or tinidazole (Tindamax®). It’s important to keep the following points in mind while undergoing treatment: A single medication dose cures up to 95% of infected women. Men and women may need to take the medication for five to seven days.

Current research

Minetti C., Chalmers R.M., Beeching N.J. et al. Giardiasis. BMJ. . 2016. V. 355. P. i5369.

Rigo G.V., Frank L.A., Galego G.B. et al. Novel treatment approaches to combat trichomoniasis, a neglected and sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis: translational perspectives. Venereology. 2022. V. 1. P. 47–80.