Many groups have a characteristic "visiting card" – two flagella that differ sharply from each other, and the motor one is furnished with tripartite mastigonemes located in 2 rows, while the backward flagellum remains smooth. Sometimes the tail flagellum is reduced (hyphochytrids) or instead of flagella, the cell is provided with many cilia (opalinates). In proteromonads, both flagella are smooth, and mastigonemes are located in the back of the cell and called somatonemata. In the transition zone of the flagellum, there are structures called single or double helix, which are another unique feature of some groups. Dikinetide have 4 microtubular roots. The rhizoplast (a cross-striated cord connecting dikinetide with the nucleus or mitochondria) is often expressed. The group is represented by a variety of types of organization, i.e. monades, amoeboid, coccoid, mycelial, filamentous, heterotrichal, lamellar or parenchymatous; frequent colonial forms. The tissue organization of brown algae has something in common with that of green and red algae (superkingdom Archeplastida) – convergence in this case is based on the patterns of transformation of the multifilamentous thallus. The organization of labyrinthulae is an ectoplasmic network with cells capable of moving inside it – has no convergent analogues in the living world. Autotrophic forms contain plastids surrounded by a 4-membrane envelope, representing a derivative of the red algal endosymbiont (the fourth membrane is an element of the endoplasmic reticulum that envelops the plastid). The additional chlorophylls are c1 and c2, as well as α-, β-, ε-carotenes. The flagellate stages of heterotrophic forms carry the K-body, which is the remnant of the chloroplast, but opalinates and proteromonads do not have any structures indicating a former autotrophic life and, apparently, are primarily heterotrophic. Mitochondria having tubular cristae. The sexual process is present or absent. Various groups of stramenopiles are studied by algologists (ochrophytes), protozoologists (opalinates, proteromonads, bicosoecids), mycologists (labyrinthulae, oomycotes).


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• DIAPHORETICKES [Adl et al., 2012]
Unranked clade SAR [Stramenopila-Alveolata-Rhizaria + Telonemia]
•• STRAMENOPILA [Patterson, 1989]
••• Bicosoecea [Cavalier-Smith, 1989]
••• Developea [Aleoshin et al., 2016]
••• Ochrophyta [Cavalier-Smith, 1986]
•••• Chrysophyceae [Pascher, 1914]
•••• Eustigmatophyceae [Hibberd, Leedale, 1971]
•••• Phaeophyceae [Hansgirg, 1886]
•••• Phaeothamniophyceae [Bailey et al., 1998]
•••• Raphidophyceae [Chadefaud, 1950]
•••• Schizocladia [Kawai et al., 2003]
•••• Xanthophyceae [Fritsch, 1935]
•••• Bolidophyceae [Guillou et al., 1999]
•••• Bacillariophyceae [Hendey, 1937]
•••• Dictyochophyceae [Silva, 1980]
•••• Pelagophyceae [Andersen et al., 1993]
•••• Pinguiophyceae [Kawachi et al., 2003]
•••• Actinophryida [Hartmann, 1913]
••• Hyphochytrea [Cavalier-Smith, 1986]
••• Peronosporomycota [Dick, 2001]
•••• Saprolegniomycetes [Hawksworth, 1994]
•••• Peronosporomycetes [Dick, 2001
••• Pirsoniomycota [Cavalier-Smith, 2017] ined.
••• Sagenista [Cavalier-Smith, 1995]
•••• Eogyrea [Cavalier-Smith, Scoble, 2013]
•••• Labyrinthulea [Olive, 1975]
••• Opalinata [Wenyon, 1926]
•••• Proteromonadea [Grasse, 1952]
•••• Opalinatea [Wenyon, 1926]
••• Placidozoa [Cavalier-Smith, Scoble, 2013]
••• Platysulcea [Cavalier-Smith, 2013]
•• TELONEMIA [Shalchian-Tabrizi et al., 2006]

Rank correlation:
• ~Subdomain;
•• ~ Kingdom;
••• ~ Phylum;
••••~ Class